|Publication Type:||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication:||2022|
|Authors:||E. Orlandin, Piovesan, M., Herbin, D., Carneiro, E.|
|Keywords:||ADULT MORPHOLOGY, APATELODES, APATELODIDAE, BRAZIL, CHAETOTAXY, EGGS, FEMALE GENITALIA, FOODPLANT, IMMATURE MORPHOLOGY, MALE GENITALIA, PUPA, VENATION|
"The genus Apatelodes Packard, 1864 comprise more than half of the known Apatelodidae species, but most of its species are placed in the genus without precise justification. The result is a heterogeneous group of species, probably forming a polyphyletic arrangement. Despite being relatively large moths and relatively abundant in light traps, only little information on the natural history and morphology of the Apatelodes immature stages has been published, and only one species is fully described including its immature stages. Aiming to increase the knowledge and provide information towards the definition of the identity of this genus, the present study describes the immature stages, provides a redescription of the male, the first description of the female of Apatelodes kotzschi Draudt, 1929, and we compare and discuss the morphological similarities among Apatelodes species. In general, the immatures of Apatelodes exhibits apparently well-conserved morphological characters, including the gross chaetotaxy configuration. Most differences are found in larval coloration patterns (mainly in the last instar larvae), pupa texture, and cremaster morphology. In contrast, imagos wings and genitalia are rich sources of diagnostic characters which can be used to identify species. However, there are still large gaps in the knowledge of the morphological characters and natural history of most species in the genus that hampers a more robust delimitation of the genus Apatelodes."