|Publication Type:||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication:||2021|
|Authors:||K. Emami, Karimpour, Y., Lotafalizadeh, H.|
|Journal:||Journal of Entomological Society of Iran|
|Keywords:||CHALCIDOIDEA, FOODPLANT, HYLES, IRAN, LIFE HISTORY, MASICERA, PARASITOIDS, PROCONURA, REARING, SPHINGIDAE, TACHINA, TACHINIDAE|
"The Syrian bean-caper hawk moth, Hyles zygophylli L., is distributed in the eastern Palearctic region and feeds on the leaves of the Syrian bean caper, Zygophyllum fabago. In order to study the life history traits and its parasitoids, continuous rearing of the Syrian bean-caper hawk moth was conducted in field and laboratory conditions. The results showed that H. zygophylli completed four generations within the growing season and hibernate as pupal stage in the soil at a depth of 2 to 6 cm. The annual life cycle of the species begins in late April with the emergence of adults from overwintering pupae and ends in early October with the pupation of fourth-generation larvae. Adult hawk moths, 2-3 days after emergence, mates and begin laying eggs in irregular shape on the stems and underside of leaves. They are spherical shape, light green and 1.1 ± 0.1 mm in diameter. Depends on daily temperature, the incubation period takes 3-5 days. The larval development time takes 18-25 days and pupal stage lasted 12-16 days. Laval development were completed in five larval instars. The maximum length (in rest position), head capsule, and weight of completely developed larvae were 6.6-6.9 mm, 4.9 mm, and 3.8-4.9 gr, respec-tively. The larvae of H. zygophylli were parasitized by two species of tachinid including Masicera sphingivora (R.-D.) and Tachina praeceps Meigen and its pupae were parasitized by a chalcid wasp namely, Proconura barbara Masi, in Urmia region. For the first time, parasitic relationship between the mentioned species and H. zygophyllum [sic] is reported.
Life cycle of the Syrian bean-caper hawk moth, Hyles zygophylli (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), and identification of its parasitoids in Urmia region, Iran